Roman Sword for the Traumatized Community: A Sociolinguistic Approach to Rom. 13:4


  • Yevgeny Ustinovich Evangelical Theological Faculty, Belgium



Romans, persecution, displaced community, sword, vengeance, trauma


The article deals with the experience of first-century Christians traumatized by persecution, displacement, and other trials mentioned in the Epistle to Romans. Special attention is given to their expectations and the problem of justice. It is argued that the Apostle Paul’s pastoral approach to this problem has a strong eschatological aspect: he encouraged the suffering Roman believers to expect some expressions of God’s vengeance to be revealed during their lifetime. The Roman sword, mentioned in 13:4, can be seen as an instrument of God’s righteous wrath. This perception of human agency may be applicable (with some limitations) in the 21st-century context of Ukraine’s war for independence.


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How to Cite

Ustinovich, Yevgeny. 2023. “Roman Sword for the Traumatized Community: A Sociolinguistic Approach to Rom. 13:4”. Theological Reflections: Eastern European Journal of Theology 21 (2):109-24.